Critical assessment on business strategy from aviation to retail industry during COVID-19 Pandemic

A Walmart Case


  • Nilufer Nilufer Student



Aviation, COVID-19, Pandemic, Walmart, Business Strategy


Covid-19 has deeper effects on our current understanding of business strategy and its implementation. Strategic management practices became more mandatory. In fact, it is a continuous process exploiting the opportunities for the sake of competitive advantages. From the aviation industry to retail, the new normal will continue to affect the value chain process of traditional companies. As a case in this study, Walmart is a well-known company with its cost leadership strategy. Cost is controlled by its most efficient value chain system, which includes all the activities from the buying of raw material to sending a product to the market. This efficient working approach and cost leadership strategy of the organization make it competitive across the globe. The company has a hand on to deal with the challenges from the internal and external environment due to changing technology and people demand. This literature-based study tries to cover the business strategy of Walmart, especially the low-cost leadership strategy and management activities in the value chain system.


Download data is not yet available.


Anderson, E. T., Fitzsimons, G. J., & Simester, D. (2006). Measuring and Mitigating the Costs of Stockouts. Management Science, 52(11), 1751–1763.

Chekwa, E., Martin, J., & Wells, K. (2015). Riding on the Waves of Sustained Competitive Advantage: Consumers’ Perspectives on Walmart Corporation. International Journal of the Academic Business World, 9(1), 61–73.

Cleary, S., & McLarney, C. (2019). Organizational Benefits of an Effective Vendor Management Strategy. IUP Journal of Supply Chain Management, 16(4), 50–67.

Dinçer, H., Hacioglu, U., & Yuksel, S. (2017). Balanced scorecard based performance measurement of European airlines using a hybrid multicriteria decision making approach under the fuzzy environment. Journal of Air Transport Management, 63, 17-33.

Gulati, R., Mikhail, O., Morgan, R. O., & Sittig, D. F. (2016). Vision Statement Quality and Organizational Performance in U.S. Hospitals. Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives, 61(5), 335–350.

Hacioglu, U. (2020). Digital Business Strategies in Blockchain Ecosystems. Springer International Publishing.

Hacioglu, U. (Ed.). (2019). Blockchain Economics and Financial Market Innovation: Financial Innovations in the Digital Age. Springer Nature.

Hacioglu, U., & Sevgilioglu, G. (2019). The evolving role of automated systems and its cyber-security issue for global business operations in Industry 4.0. International Journal of Business Ecosystem & Strategy (2687-2293), 1(1), 01–11.

Hacioglu, U. (Ed.). (2019). Handbook of research on strategic fit and design in business ecosystems. IGI Global.

Hicks, M. J., Keil, S. R., & Spector, L. C. (2012). Mom-and-Pops or Big Box Stores: Some Evidence of Walmart Impact on Retail Trade. Economic Development Quarterly, 26(4), 311–320.

Hoch, S. J., Drèze, X., & Purk, M. E. (1994). EDLP, Hi-Lo, and Margin Arithmetic. Journal of Marketing, 58(4), 16–27.

Hunjra, Dr. A. I., Faisal, F., & Gulshion, F. (2017). The Impact of Cost Leadership Strategy and Financial Management Control Systems on Organizational Performance in Pakistan’s Services Sector. Lahore Journal of Business, 6, 1–19.

Hwang, J., & Chung, J.-E. (2019). What drives consumers to certain retailers for organic food purchase: The role of fit for consumers’ retail store preference. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 47, 293–306.

Macleod, L. (2016). Mission, Vision, and Values Statements: The Physician Leader’s Role. Physician Leadership Journal.

Mariadoss, B. J., Johnson, J. L., & Martin, K. D. (2014). Strategic intent and performance: The role of resource allocation decisions. Journal of Business Research, 67(11), 2393–2402.

Marques, A., Soares, R., Santos, M. J., & Amorim, P. (2020). Integrated planning of inbound and outbound logistics with a Rich Vehicle Routing Problem with backhauls. Omega, 92, 102172.

Maruši?, T. (2019). Importance of Marketing Mix in Successful Positioning of Products and Services on The Market. Ekonomska Misao i Praksa, 1, 431–446.

Matsa, D. A. (2011). Competition and Product Quality in the Supermarket Industry. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126(3), 1539–1591.

Mottner, S., & Smith, S. (2009). Wal-Mart: Supplier performance and market power. Journal of Business Research, 62, 535–541.

Porter, M. E. (1985). Value chain. The Value Chain and Competitive advantage: creating and sustaining superior performance.

Porter, M.E. (1997). Competitive Strategy, Measuring Business Excellence, 1(2), 12-17.

Schöneberg, T., Koberstein, A., & Suhl, L. (2010). An optimization model for the automated selection of economic and ecologic delivery profiles in area forwarding based inbound logistics networks. Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal, 22(3), 214–235.

Seenivasan, S., & Talukdar, D. (2016). Competitive Effects of Wal-Mart Supercenter Entry: Moderating Roles of Category and Brand Characteristics. Journal of Retailing, 92(2), 218–225.

Stankevi?i?t?, E., Grunda, R., & Bartkus, E. V. (2012). Pursuing a cost leadership strategy and business sustainability objectives: Walmart case study. Economics and Management, 17(3), 1200-1206.

Timilsina, B. (2015). Competitively Distinct Operations as a Key for Superior and Sustainable Business Performance: An Example from Walmart. Management (18544223), 10(3).

Viswanathan, S., & Piplani, R. (2001). Coordinating supply chain inventories through common replenishment epochs. European Journal of Operational Research, 129(2), 277–286.

Wada, T. (2018). Capability-based cost leadership strategy of Japanese firms. Annals of Business Administrative Science, 17(1), 1–10.

Yin, P.-Y., & Chuang, Y.-L. (2016). Adaptive memory artificial bee colony algorithm for green vehicle routing with cross-docking. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 40(21), 9302–9315.




How to Cite

Nilufer, N. (2020). Critical assessment on business strategy from aviation to retail industry during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Walmart Case. International Journal of Business Ecosystem & Strategy (2687-2293), 2(2), 8–14.



Interdisciplinary Studies in Business Ecosystem