Human resource development and employee turnover intentions
The mediating role of employee engagement
Keywords:HRD Practices, Employee Engagement, Employee Turnover Intentions, Health Care Institutions.
Highly engaged employees ensure organizational competitiveness and success. The study examined whether employee engagement mediates the relationship between human resource development and employee turnover intentions. A field study was conducted among six indigenously owned healthcare institutions and 14 internationally owned healthcare institutions. The data supported the hypothesized relationships. The results indicate a significant association between HRD and the levels of behavioral engagement. HRD and the levels of emotional engagement had an insignificant relationship. HRD and the levels of cognitive engagement were significantly related. The findings also indicated that the association between HRD and employee turnover intentions was mediated by employee engagement. The present study’s emphasis on healthcare institutions may constrain the generalizability of the findings. The study suggests the adoption and development of well-designed and formulated HRD practices enhance employee engagement, knowledge development, and organizational commitment. By empirically demonstrating that employee engagement mediates the nexus of HRD and employee turnover intentions, the study extends the literature.
Agarwal, U. A., Datta, S., Blake-Beard, S., & Bhargava, S. (2012). Linking LMX, innovative work behaviour and turnover intentions: The mediating role of work engagement. Career Development International, 17, 208-230. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431211241063
Al Mehrzi, N., & Singh, S.K. (2016). Competing through employee engagement: a proposed framework. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 65(6), 831-843. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-02-2016-0037
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: state of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(3), 309–328. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940710733115
Bakker, A.B., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2008). Positive organizational behavior: engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Journal of organizational behavior, 29 (2), 147-154. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.515
Bal, P.M., Kooij, D.T., & De Jong, S.B. (2013). How do developmental and accommodative HRM enhance employee engagement and commitment? the role of psychological contract and SOC strategies. Journal of Management Studies, 50(4), 545-572. https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12028.
Bartlett, K. R. (2001). The relationship between training and organizational commitment: a study in the health care field. Human Resource Development Quarterly,12(4), 335–352. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.1001
Baron, R. M., &Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063
Baumruk, R. (2004). The missing link: the role of employee engagement in business success. Workspan, 47(11), 48-52. https://www.proquest.com/trade-journals/missing-link-role-employee-engagement-business/docview/194712679/se-2
Bailey, C., Madden, A., Alfes, K., & Fletcher, L. (2017). The meaning, antecedents and outcomes of employee engagement: A narrative synthesis. International Journal of Management Reviews, 19, 31-53. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12077
Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life, New York: Wiley.
Beach, R., Brereton D., & Cliff, D. (2003). Workforce turnover in FIFO mining operations in Australia: an exploratory study, Brisbane, Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining, pp.1-64. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Workforce-turnover-in-FIFO-mining-operations-in-an-Beach-Brereton/5577923d94a446b03bb266d0cdb9a15c55cd99d5
Bhatnagar, J. (2012). Management of innovation: Role of psychological empowerment, work engagement and turnover intention in the Indian context. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23, 928-951. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2012.651313
Brown, S. P., & Leigh, T. W. (1996). A new look at psychological climate and its relationship to job involvement, effort, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology,81, 358–368. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.4.358
Byrne, B.M. (2013). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications, and programming, Routledge, New York, NY.
Chew, J. & Chan, C.C.A. (2008). Human resource practices, organizational commitment and intention to stay. International Journal of Manpower, 29(6), 503 522. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437720810904194.
Christian, M.S., Garza, A.S., & Slaughter, J.E. (2011). Work engagement: a quantitative review and test of its relations with task and contextual performance. Personnel psychology, 64(1), 89-136. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01203.x
Chalofsky, N., & Krishna, V. (2009). Meaningfulness, commitment, and engagement: The intersection of a deeper level of intrinsic motivation. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11, 189-203. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422309333147
Cho, Y., & McLean, G. N. (2009). Leading Asian countries’ HRD practices in the IT industry: a comparative study of South Korea and India. Human Resource Development International, 12(3), 313-331. https://doi.org/10.1080/13678860902982108
Craighead, C., Ketchen, D., Dunn, K., & Hult, G. (2011). Addressing common method variance: guidelines for survey research on information technology, operations, and supply chain management. Journal of Engineering Management, 58(3), 578-588. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2011.2136437
Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: an interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–900. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206305279602
Czarnowsky, M. (2008). Learning’s role in employee engagement: An ASTD research study. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development. Czarnowsky%2C+M.+%282008%29%2C+Learning’s+role+in+employee+engagement%3A+An+ASTD+research+study.+Alexandria%2C+VA%3A.
Dalal, R. S., Baysinger, M., Brummel, B. J., & LeBreton, J. M. (2012). The relative importance of employee engagement, other job attitudes, and trait affect as predictors of job performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 295-325.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2012.01017.x
Fleming, J. H., & Asplund, J. (2007). Human sigma. New York: Gallup Press.
Gerbing, D. W., & Anderson, J. C. (1992). Monte Carlo evaluations of goodness of fit indices for structural equation models. Sociological Methods and Research, 21(2), 132-160. https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124192021002002
Ghana Health Service (2022), The 2022 Directory of Accredited Health Care Establishment, Available from www.ghs.gov.gh (accessed on 18/5/2022).
Ghosh, R., Reio, T. G., Jr., & Haynes, R. K. (2012). Mentoring and organizational citizenship behavior: Estimating the mediating effects of organization-based self-esteem and affective commitment. Human Resource Development Quarterly,23, 41-46 https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21121.
Gilley, J. W., Shelton, P. M., and Gilley, A. (2011). Developmental leadership, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(3), 386–405. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422311424264.
Glambek, M., Matthiesen, S. B., Hetland, J., & Einarsen, S. (2014). Workplace bullying as an antecedent to job insecurity and intention to leave: A 6-month prospective study. Human Resource Management Journal, 24, 255-268. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2018.1427815.
Gruman, J.A., & Saks, A.M. (2011). Performance management and employee engagement. Human Resource Management Review, 21(2), 123-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.09.004.
Guchait, P., & Cho, S. (2010). The impact of human resource management practices on intention to leave of employees in the service industry in India: The mediating role of organizational commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21, 1228-1247. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2010.483845.
Gupta, M., Shaheen, M., & Reddy, P. K. (2017). Impact of psychological capital on organizational citizenship behavior: mediation by work engagement. Journal of Management Development, 36, 973-983. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2016.1194174.
Guzzo, R.A., and Noonan, K.A. (1994). Human resource practices as communications and the psychological contract”, Human Resource Management,33(3), 447-462. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.3930330311.
Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business unit- level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 268–279. 10.1037/0021-9010.87.2.268.
Herzog, W., & Boomsma, A. (2009). Small-sample robust estimators of non-centrality-based and incremental model fit. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 16(1), 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510802561279
Hom, P. W., & Griffeth, R. W. (1995). Employee turnover. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
Hoyle R.H. (2011) Structural equation modeling for social and personality psychology. Sage, London
Jackson, D. L. (2007). The effect of the number of observations per parameter in mis specified confirmatory factor analytic models. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 14(1), 48-76. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510709336736.
Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 692–724. https://doi.org/10.5465/256287.
Kareem, M. A., & Hussein?, I. J. (2019). The impact of human resource development on employee ??performance and organizational effectiveness. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 7(3), 307–322. http://www.managementdynamics.ro/index.php/journal/article/view/306/269.
Karatepe, O.M., &Ngeche, R.N. (2012). Does job embeddedness mediate the effect of work engagement? a study of hotel employees in Cameroon. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management,21(94), 440-461. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2012.626730.
Kataria, A., Garg, P., & Rastogi, R. (2013). Psychological climate and organizational effectiveness: Role of work engagement. IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(3), 33-46. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281269521_Psychological_Climate_and_Organizational_Effectiveness_Role_of_Work_Engagement.
Kline, R.B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. (3rd ed.) New York: Guilford Press
Krishnan, S. K., & Singh, M. (2010). Outcomes of intention to quit of Indian IT professionals. Human Resource Management, 49, 421-437. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20357.
Lacity, M. C., Iyer, V. V., & Rudramuniyaiah, P. S. (2008). Turnover intentions of Indian IS professionals. Information Systems Frontiers, 10, 225-241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-007-9062-3.
Lavelle, J. J., McMahan, G. C., & Harris, C. M. (2009). Fairness in human resource management, social exchange relationships, and citizenship behavior: testing linkages of the target similarity model among nurses in the United States. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20, 2419-2434. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190903363748.
Lee, C. H., &Bruvold, N. T. (2003). Creating value for employees: investment in employee development. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14, 981–1000. https://doi.org/10.1080/0958519032000106173
Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. (2000). Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences in Denzin, N and Lincoln, Y (ed.), Handbook of Qualitative Research, London: Sage Publication Inc.
Macey, W., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(1), 3–30. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2007.0002.x.
Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 397–422. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397.
Markos, S., & Sridevi, M. S. (2010). Employee engagement: The key to improving performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 89-96. https://doi.org/10.5539/IJBM.V5N12P89.
May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety, and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational Psychology,77(1), 11–37. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317904322915892.
McDonald, K.S.&, L.M (2005). Reviving the relevance of career development in human resource development, 4(4), 371–372 https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484305281006.
Mossholder, K.W., Bennett, N., Kemery, E.R. & Wesolowski, M.A. (1998). Relationships between bases of power and work reactions: the mediational role of procedural justice. Journal of Management, 24(4), 533-552. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2063(99)80072-5.
Nadler L. (1970). How is your organizational health? Human Resource Management, 9(1), 18-28. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.3930090104.
Otoo, F.N.K. & Mishra, M. (2018). Influence of human resource development (HRD) practices on hotel industry’s performance: The role of employee competencies. European Journal of Training and Development, 42, 435-454. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJTD-07-2017-0113.
Otoo, F.N.K. (2019). Human resource development (HRD) practices and banking industry effectiveness: The mediating role of employee competencies. European Journal of Training and Development, 43, 250-271. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJTD-07-2018-0068.
Otoo, F.N.K. (2019). Human resource management (HRM) practices and organizational performance: The mediating role of employee competencies. Employee Relations, 41, 949-970. https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-02-2018-0053.
Otoo, F.N.K. (2020). Measuring the impact of human resource management (HRM) practices on pharmaceutical industry's effectiveness: the mediating role of employee competencies. Employee Relations, 42, 1353-1380. https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-03-2019-0142
Otoo, F., Kuar, M.., & Otoo, E. (2022). Does human capital mediate the nexus of human resource management (HRM) practices and organizational performance? International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 11(5), 199–209. https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v11i5.1829.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.Y., &Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 539-569. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100452.
Rich, B. L., LePine, J. A., & Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academy of Management Journal,53, 617–635. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.51468988.
Richardson, H., Simmering, M., & Sturman, M. (2009). A tale of three perspectives: examining post hoc statistical techniques for
detection and correction of common method variance. Organizational Research Methods, 12, 762–800. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428109332834.
Robinson, D., Perryman, S., & Hayday, S. (2004). The drivers of employee engagement report, Institute for Employment Studies, UK.
Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600–619. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940610690169.
Salanova, M., Agut, S., & Peiró, J. M. (2005). Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: the mediation of service climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1217–1227. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1217
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., &Thornhill, A. (2003). Research methods for business students, (3rd ed.), Prentice Hall, UK.
Settoon, R.P., Bennett, N., & Liden, R.C. (1996). Social exchange in organizations: perceived support, leader–member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology,18(3), 219–27. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.3.219.
Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: a two-sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71–92. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015630930326.
Schaufeli, W.B., & Bakker, A.B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnt out and engagement: a multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 25, 293-315. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.248.
Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire a cross national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4), 701–716. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164405282471.
Schein, E. H. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership, (3rd ed.), Jossey-Bass Publications, San Francisco, CA.
Shuck, B. (2011). Four emerging perspectives of employee engagement: an integrative literature review. Human Resource Development Review,10(3), 304–328. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484311410840.
Shuck, B., Ghosh, R., Zigarmi, D., & Nimon, K. (2012). The jingle jangle of employee engagement: further exploration of the emerging construct and implications for workplace learning and performance. Human Resource Development Review, 12(1), 11–35. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484312463921.
Shuck, B., Reio, T. G., Jr., & Rocco, T. S. (2011). Employee engagement: An examination of antecedent and outcome variables. Human Resource Development International,14(4), 427–445. https://doi.org/10.1080/13678868.2011.601587.
Shuck, B., & Reio, T. G. (2011). The employee engagement landscape and HRD: How do we link theory and scholarship to current practice. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(4), 419–428. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422311431153.
Shuck, B., Twyford, D., Reio, T. G., Jr., &Shuck, A. (2014). Human resource development practices and employee engagement: examining the connection with employee turnover intentions. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 25(2), 239–270. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21190.
Shuck, B., & Wollard, K. (2010). Employee engagement and HRD: a seminal review of the foundations. Human Resource Development Review, 9(1), 89–110. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484309353560.
Simonds, D., &Pederson, C. (2006). HRD: the shapes and things to come. Journal of Workplace Learning,18(2), 122-135. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484309353560.
Smyth, R., Zhai, Q., & Li, X. (2009). Determinants of turnover intentions among Chinese off farm migrants. Econ Change Restruct, Economic Change and Restructuring; Dordrecht, 42, 189-209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10644-008-9067-z.
Song, J., Kolb, J. A., Lee, U., & Kim, H. (2012). Role of transformational leadership in effective organizational knowledge creation practices: mediating effects of employees’ work engagement. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 23(1), 65–101. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21120.
Supeli, A., & Creed, P. A. (2016). The longitudinal relationship between protean career orientation and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention-to-quit. Journal of Career Development, 43, 66-80. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845315581686
Swanson, R.A. (2001). Human resource development and its underlying theory. Human Resource Development International, 4(3), 299-312. https://doi.org/10.1080/13678860110059311.
Truss, C., Schantz, A., Soane, E., Alfes, K., & Delbridge, R. (2013). Employee engagement, organisational performance and individual well-being: exploring the evidence, developing the theory. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(14), 2657-2669. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2013.798921.
Uraon, R. S. (2018). Examining the Impact of HRD Practices on Organizational Commitment and Intention to Stay Within Selected Software Companies in India: A review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Advances in Developing Human Resources 20(1), 11–43. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422317741691.
Valentin, C. (2014). The extra mile deconstructed: a critical and discourse perspective on employee engagement and HRD. Human Resource Development International, 17(4), 475–490. https://doi.org/10.1080/13678868.2014.932091.
Vecina, M. L., Chacón, F., Marzana, D., & Marta, E. (2013). Volunteer engagement and organizational commitment in nonprofit organizations: What makes volunteers remain within organizations and feel happy? Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 291-302. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21530.
Wang, L., Fan, X., & Willson, V. L. (1996). Effects of nonnormal data on parameter estimates and fit indices for a model with latent and manifest variables: An empirical study. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 3(3), 228-247. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519609540042.
Weinberger, L. A. (1998). Commonly held theories of human resource development. Human Resource Development International,1(1), 75-93. https://doi.org/10.1080/13678869800000009.
Werner, J.M., & DeSimone, R.L, (2006). Human resource development: foundation, framework, and application. Cengage Learning Publications, India.
W.HO. (2003). Shaping the Future. The World Health Report, Geneva, pp. 143.
Wollard, K. (2011). Quiet desperation: Another perspective on employee engagement. an integrative literature review on employee engagement in the field of human resource. Advances in Developing Human Resources,13(4), 526–537. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422311430942.
Wollard, K., & Shuck, M. (2011). Antecedents to employee engagement: a structured review of the literature. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(4), 429-446. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422311431220.
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Work engagement and financial returns: a diary study on the role of job and personal resources. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(1), 183-200. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317908X285633.
Yin-Fah, B.C., Y.S. Foon, L. Chee-Leong., &Osman, S. (2010). An exploratory study on turnover intention among private sector employees. International Journal of Business Managers,5, 57-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v5n8p57.
Zeinabadi, H. (2010). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
of teachers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences,5, 998-1003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.225.
Zigarmi, D., Nimon, K., Houson, D., Witt, D., & Diehl, J. (2009). Beyond engagement: toward a framework and operational definition for employee work passion. Human Resource Development Review,8, 300–326. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484309338171.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Frank Nana Kweku Otoo
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
© 2023 retained by the authors. Licensee BSC International Academy, Istanbul, Turkey. This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).